Tag Archives: Open Jerusalem

Open Jerusalem Project Achieves the Classification of the French Consular Archives (1843-1914)

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Seal of the French Consulate of Palestine (294PO/B)

As part of the Open-Jerusalem research program (funded by the European Research Council ERC), a systematic and standardized description of the archives of the French Consulate of Jerusalem has been launched for the period 1843-1940. This mission was funded by the Open-Jerusalem project and received the support of the French Consulate in Jerusalem and of the CADN (Centre des Archives Diplomatiques de Nantes). The purpose of this first mission (one month, January 2016) was to treat the part concerning the 1843-1914 period of the series 294 PO / B (71 archive boxes = 6.7 linear meters).

Since its repatriation in France in 1978, the series 294PO / B has indeed been much solicited by researchers. The original manuscript inventory of 1956 was not very detailed, many files were no longer located at their initial place, and some boxes were particularly disorganized. For all of these reasons, the reclassification of all of the 71 boxes and the consolidation and deepening of the existing inventory was undertaken as part of this mission. This was done in order to facilitate the consultation and the valorization of these particularly rich and exciting archives for the history of Jerusalem. Indeed, the records contain numerous documents on the political situation in the holy city, the relationship between local authorities and Ottoman government, municipal taxes, business affairs, the maintenance of public order, conflicts and solidarity between religious communities, public works and urban development, health issues, etc.

The very rare and high quality of these archives must be highlighted. They were reorganized on site by the Consul Boppe in 1904, and inventoried (still on site) by Paulette Gustin in the 1950s. In a 1958 inspection report, the French consulate of Jerusalem is complimented for the quality of its records: “Jerusalem can serve as an example to other Consulates”. To prepare the successive returns to the Centre des Archives Diplomatiques in Nantes, several missions have been implemented in the consulate: the archivists Miss Pouillon and Mrs Pozzo di Borgo realized an archive mission in Jerusalem in October and November 1977, just before the return of the archives in France in 1978.

Moreover, it should be stressed that very few European consulates in Jerusalem were able to keep  records of such an excellent level, quantitatively and qualitatively. At the time when the Ottoman Empire entered the war against the powers of the Triple Entente in November 1914, consulates of France, Britain and Russia hurriedly closed. During the first world war, the Spanish consulate (neutral country) was in charge of looking after the interests (and archives) of the Allied powers. As a result of the Russian Revolution in 1917, the Russian Consulate archives have been lost, until now. The British consulate archives have largely been absorbed by the new occupying authorities and agents from 1917 onwards, which now makes them difficult to locate: they have been “diluted” in the Mandate archives. Regarding the archives of the consulate of Prussia and Germany, they were sealed by the British authorities in 1939 and then partially recovered by the new Israeli State Archives (ISA) after 1949. Among other ongoing investigations, the Open-Jerusalem Program strives to locate and describe all the consular archives in Jerusalem, including current missions in Rome and Madrid, for archives of Italian and Spanish consulates.

Brief history of the Series CADN / 294PO / B

The fund “Archives du Consulat de France à Jerusalem” preserved in CADN (Centre des Archives Diplomatiques de Nantes) consists of two sub-funds encompassing 9 description series. The first sub-fund (1843-1947), which is at the center of our research, includes:

– Series A, which includes the archives concerning the Holy Places, over the period of 1843-1914

– Series B, which includes the thematic files of the consulate of France from 1843 to 1941.

– Both the series A & B were repatriated to France in 1978.

Before the establishment of the Consulate of France in Jerusalem, the interests of France were managed successively by the consulates of France in Aleppo, Damascus and Cairo. It is in 1842 that the Ministry decides to create a consulate in Jerusalem, whose first titleholder was the Comte Gabriel Lantivy. The Consulate has, like other consulates, three main roles: it administers and protects the French community and French nationals abroad, it is in charge of administrative services for French nationals abroad (civil status, notary, issuing of identity documents, registration of French nationals) and finally, it is also an entity that can promote the French cultural identity. At that time, the consulate was placed directly under the authority of the Embassy of France in Constantinople1.

So the French consular archives retrace continuously, since 1843, all the activities of the consulate and its relations with local authorities, religious communities, consulates of other countries, the Embassy and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Achievements of the mission

  • The mission lasted one month, from 4 to 29 January 2016. Initially, the mission allowed to better understand the history of the fund and the arrangement of successive repatriations and to better document the series, through the consultation of the record of the Archives Department on the consulate of France in Jerusalem (odds 13ACN / 239).
  • Secondly, the systematic treatment of boxes 1-71 (representing 6.7 linear meters) helped to consolidate the ranking and to refine (or to correct if necessary) the initial manuscript description of the records (1956). The documentary typology was systematically clarified. In addition, the documents have been replaced in the specific order described by the 1956 manuscript, despite significant disorder prevailing in some boxes. For future better conservation, all the documents have been repackaged with neutral paper shirts and neutral cardboard boxes.
  • Alongside this work of repackaging, the 1956 manuscript inventory has been fully typed in a word processor. This greatly simplifies the search inside the files and allows queries by date or keyword.
  • Furthermore, a systematic survey of the relevant thematic elements for the Open-Jerusalem Project was drawn up with the help of a table of predetermined topics.
  • Finally, with a view to a possible future digitization, a tracking and reporting (in a separate list) of oversized documents or documents in bad condition has been made. The complete digitization diagnostic is still in progress.

Adélaïde Laloux (Master “Métiers des archives et des bibliothèques”, University of Angers), under the supervision of Bérangère Fourquaux, Vincent Lemire & Yann Potin

  1. See M. Degros, «Les créations de postes diplomatiques et consulaires», La Revue d’histoire diplomatique, 1986, pp. 44-46 ; J.-Ph. Mochon, « Le consulat de France à Jérusalem: aspects historiques, juridiques et politiques de ses fonctions», L’annuaire français de droit international, 1996, pp. 929-945. []

Open Jerusalem workshop on Russian and German archives

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L’ERC Open Jerusalem, projet de recherche piloté par Vincent Lemire et dont Leyla Dakhli, chercheure au CMB, est membre, sera l’hôte du Centre Marc Bloch les 18 et 19 janvier prochains (séminaire de travail dans la salle Georg Simmel).
Deux moments de discussion publique seront proposés à l’ensemble des personnes intéressées (en anglais).
Une présentation publique du projet par Vincent Lemire et Yann Potin aura lieu le 18 janvier à 17h. Les historiens et archivistes réunis dans le projet travaillent à connecter les archives de la ville – présentes aussi bien à Jérusalem que dans le monde entier, écrites dans de multiples langues et alphabets – pour en écrire collectivement une histoire globale. Seront présentés les enjeux liés à l’ouverture des archives, à leur recensement et à leur utilisation par les chercheurs.
Le 19 janvier à partir de 14h, un séminaire ouvert au public portera sur les archives allemandes  et germanophones de Jérusalem.

Contact:

Leyla Dakhli
Location:

Georg-Simmel Saal, CMB
Friedrichtstraße 191
Georg-Simmel Saal
10117
Berlin
Germany
https://cmb.hu-berlin.de/en/calendar/event/open-jerusalem-1/

Ouvrir ou entrouvrir les archives de Jérusalem

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Vincent Lemire présentera les premiers jalons du projet de recherche OPEN-JERUSALEM qui se base sur le dépouillement des archives de Jérusalem, à la fin de l’époque ottomane et pendant la période mandataire. Ce projet majeur et novateur, financé par le Conseil Européen de la Recherche (ERC), vise à connecter les archives des diérentes communautés hiérosolymitaines, trop souvent étudiées séparément, pour établir une histoire de la «citadinité» à Jérusalem.

Vincent Lemire est maître de conférences en histoire contemporaine à l’Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée et chercheur associé à l’Ifpo. Il a soutenu en 2006 une thèse en histoire environnementale intitulée «une hydrohistoire de Jérusalem aux XIXème et XXème siècles». Il dirige actuellement le projet ERC OPEN-JERUSALEM (2014-2019) : «Opening Jerusalem’s Archives: for a connected history of ‘Citadinité’ in the Holy City (1840-1940)».

CFP: “Revealing Ordinary Jerusalem (1840–1940): New archives and perspectives on urban citizenship and global entanglements”

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ERC Open Jerusalem – Call for papers – International symposium

Revealing Ordinary Jerusalem (1840–1940):

New archives and perspectives

on urban citizenship and global entanglements

10–12 May 2016
Institute for Mediterranean Studies, Rethymno, Greece

The ERC Project Open Jerusalem, directed by Vincent Lemire, is organizing its first international symposium entitled “Revealing Ordinary Jerusalem (1840–1940): New archives and perspectives on urban citizenship and global entanglements”. The event will take place at the Institute for Mediterranean Studies in Rethymno (Crete, Greece) on 10–12 May 2016.

The ERC Open Jerusalem project aims to unlock and connect different archives and sources in order to investigate the ordinary entangled history of a global city through the lens of the concept of urban citizenship (citadinité). The objective is to produce historical narratives focusing on the way residents interacted with each other, inhabited and appropriated space(s). The symposium intends to be a forum for deepening discussions and opening scientific debates, based on contributions by scholars specializing in related topics, urban historians and specialists of the region. Therefore all participants are kindly requested to stay in Rethymno for the whole duration of the symposium.

Papers should address topics such as:

  • New archives and links between sources concerning the late Ottoman and Mandate periods (including cartographic materials)
  • Public policies, institutions and services (markets, charities, fountains, hammams, schools, hospitals, prisons, etc.)
  • Public time and civic events (city sounds, calendars, liturgies, feasts, imperial ceremonies, etc.)
  • Negotiation and struggle over shared or contested urban spaces
  • Civic actors (middlemen, dragomen, local notables, journalists etc.)
  • Itineraries inside and outside the city (pilgrims, travellers, tourists, migrants, etc.)
  • Connected sociabilities: economic, cultural and gender relations, interreligious encounters, etc.
  • Cultural exchange, press diffusion and reception, rumours, languages and creolisation.

We encourage comparative approaches, original studies based on new material and innovative papers, which will be published in a volume after the symposium. English will be the language for all papers, presentations and discussions.

We invite scholars to respond to this call for papers with a short CV, a title and a short abstract (ca. 200 words), including the sources that will be used, by 17 January 2016. The draft versions of the papers should be ready before the symposium (deadline 31 March 2016) and precirculated in order to leave enough time for discussants and participants to read the entire collection of contributions.

The Open Jerusalem project will be pleased to cover the travel and accommodation costs. Abstracts should be sent to Dr Angelos Dalachanis (angelos.dalachanis@gmail.com), a member of the Open Jerusalem team, who can also provide more information.

Download the CFP here

Family libraries and printing presses in Jerusalem (1840-1940): Production, circulation and reception of multilingual documents

by Vincent Lemire, Leyla Dakhli, Anouk Cohen

This post is a short abstract of the report written after a mission realized by Leyla Dakhli, Vincent Lemire and Anouk Cohen in Jerusalem for a week, from 8 to 14 June 2015. The goal of this mission was only to launch this fieldwork and to open future tracks of works. The focus was to investigate the circulation of printed documents in Jerusalem 1840-1940 and their position, while paying crucial attention to the different languages of their production and distribution. This approach aimed to have a better view of the possible and/or impossible connected practices of knowledge. To this end, the mission focused on two kinds of places of production and circulation of knowledge:
Family libraries: the goal of this investigation was to understand what kind of books made up the libraries of scholars from the period in question with a particular interest in practical knowledge of languages (by paying attention to dictionaries for example).
Printing presses: this investigation aims to study the type of books produced between 1840 and 1940 and the languages in which they were produced (from archival documents and letters cases left in the old printing workshops for example).
This mission sought to identify significant lieux de savoir1 (i-e places of knowledge) and documentation centers (archival or otherwise) and attempt to capture gestures and operations, instruments and supports, expertise and practices, interaction modes and validation procedures, forms of registration and dynamic transmission that contribute, in their articulation, in order to understand the concrete practices of shared and/or divided knowledge in the Holy city in the period 1840-1940.

Family libraries

The Khalidi library
The Khalidi library is arguably the best-preserved privately owned manuscript library in the old city. The Khalidi library houses 1200 manuscripts, most of them microfilmed and stored in boxes in a temperature-controlled room in the attic of the old madrassa. We consulted the catalog of the collections of the library published in 2006 by Khader Salameh and Nazim Al-Ju’aba and prefaced by Walid Khalidi in Arabic2 . Then, we consulted Ruhi al-Khalidi’s documents stored in an acid-resistant gray box3 . Theses documents mainly consist of vocabulary books (organized into lists) and notes taken from various books including those of Ibn Khaldun. These notebooks may belong to his son (John al-Khalidi). Finally, we visited the room where 1900 books printed in Latin characters are stored, including many dictionaries, almanacs and guides that occupy an entire section of the bookcase.

Picture 1. Ruhi / or John al-Khalidi’s vocabulary notebook
Picture 1. Ruhi / or John al-Khalidi’s vocabulary notebook

 

Picture 2. An example of dictionary in the Khalidi Library
Picture 2. An example of dictionary in the Khalidi Library

 

Instruments of knowledge such as magazines, dictionaries, grammar books, encyclopedias, manuals, guides, almanacs, atlases, official publications (such as court judgments of the mandate that would allow us to understand how they developed their research), as well as printers and publishers’ catalogs could be a very interesting material for future research.
From the Excel table of the Latin characters printed catalog (available on Khalidi library’s website4 ), it would be possible to define several sets of data to grasp some publication policies as well as identify the major production centers. Moreover, this statistical study would allow to identify the number of languages and to create clouds of information. Finally, crosscheck this different sets of information would help to understand in which languages the different users of the library were reading and what were the main themes they were interested in. The type of crosstabs that would be interesting to develop are the followings: owners / dates, owners / themes  / languages, owners / places of publication.

The Budeiri library
In this place, located next to the Haram esh-Sherif, we may distinguish three blocks of documents.
1) The old manuscripts: 1,166 manuscripts make up the collection. Today, 90% of them are digitized. The manuscripts are safely kept in a small room inside iron storages. It is worth noting that this room is located near a zâwiya where the ancestor allowed students to study.

Picture 3. Manuscripts kept inside iron storages in the Budeiri Library
Picture 3. Manuscripts kept inside iron storages in the Budeiri Library
Picture 4. One of the manuscripts from the Budeiri Library
Picture 4. One of the manuscripts from the Budeiri Library

2) The printed books: there are 158 printed books dating from the end of Ottoman period and Mandate period, mainly written in Ottoman and Arabic. All of them have been inventoried, receiving a singular quotation. Compared to the Khalidi library, Budeiri library’s collection has fewer books in foreign (specially European) languages.
3) The archives are well preserved under plastic cover and stored in about twenty files. This is an original documentation in regard to different fields, especially the history of the Jerusalem Jordanian municipality (1949-1967). There are also various policy papers, poetry and personal documents such as letters. Other documents dated 1950’s consist in names of streets and locations. There are also maps, stamped collected letters and business cards.

Picture 5. An example of map stored in the archives from the Budeiri Library
Picture 5. An example of map stored in the archives from the Budeiri Library

 

Printing presses

Franciscan printing press (FPP)
The Franciscan printing press (FPP) was founded in 1847, the first book printed this year was a catechism in Arabic. The old printing machines and letter cases are well preserved. With the exception of some of them that were displaced recently in Beitphage (the new site for FPP Franciscan Printing Press), three machines remained within the walls of Saint Saviour’s Convent. One of them stands in the great hall of the Custody.

Picture 6. Printing press machine, 1860 (Saint Saviour's Convent)
Picture 6. Printing press machine, 1860 (Saint Saviour’s Convent)
Picture 7. Examples of letters cases in different languages (Saint Saviour's Convent)
Picture 7. Examples of letters cases in different languages (Saint Saviour’s Convent)

 

Picture 8. Letter cases in Arabic (Beitphage)
Picture 8. Letter cases in Arabic (Beitphage)
Picture 9. Special stamps engraved in zinc (Beitphage)
Picture 9. Special stamps engraved in zinc (Beitphage)

 

Picture 10. “Our Father” printed by the FPP in different languages (Beitphage)
Picture 10. “Our Father” printed by the FPP in different languages (Beitphage)

 

Thanks to Fr. Sergey Loktionov, archivist in chief at the Custody, the historical archives of the FPP are well preserved and perfectly described (under the category “Tipografia”). For sure, the Franciscan printing press was the largest printing press in Jerusalem during the period in question, especially (but not only) for books printed in Latin characters. Thereby, it’s a sort of laboratory / observatory through which it’s possible to see the way in which the city did functioned on a social and cultural level. Indeed, we found a lot of mentions of business cards, printed invitations to concerts, receptions, etc. In the archives there are also precise indications on the printing process, including of activities of production and its different stages. Here are some examples of the consulted files:
1. 1854 apr. 6 – 1888 dic. 27: “Difficoltà per la stamperia”
2. 1878 – inizi sec. XX: “Officine, operai”
3. 1922 giu. 1 – 1926 giu. 22: “censure di publicazioni – Imprimi potest”
4. 1899 ago. 1 – 1952 nov. 21: “Quietanze e note contabili”
5. 1908 apr. 12 – 1953 feb. 18: “Regolamento degli impiegati dell’officina”
6. 1866 mag. – 1873 dic. 2; 1955 feb. 10 – 1955 mar. 16: “Miscellanea”
7. 1879 May 7 – 1892 Sett 12: “Libri stampati al conto della Custodia”.
8. 1880 January 5 – 1909 March 11: “Libri legati pel magazzino”. This register lists all the activities from the Tipografia’s bindery. It provides the list of bound books. We learn that for some books only a few bound copies were printed.  Also, the same book could be bound and/or not bound.
9. December 1917 – April 1919: “Registro dei lavori pel governo”. This register, which looks like an ordinary notebook, is of a great importance: it lists all the printed works produced by the new British power in 1918-1919. There are pell-mell passes, labels, administrative stationery, forms, posters, legal notices, a music program, blank passports, maps of prisoners, telegram forms, Post records, daily reports from hospitals (Hospital Report Daily), records of wanted persons, documents related to the police force, building permits, conversion tables (“money rate”), Passes to enter City Walls, contract forms, Medical Ordinance, Jerusalem School of Music. It also contains valuable information on the price of commodities. These data are particularly important because they provide information on the implementation modalities of the new British administration in 1918-1920. Indeed, the Tipografia custody, being the most important of the city, did functions at that time as a kind of official printing press; and thereby, for historians, as a main way of getting information).
10. 1857 June 15 – 1879 December 31: “Giornale delle prestazioni della tipografia”. By 1857, this register describes in great detail the work done by the workers during the months worked. Beginning ten years after the founding of the Tipografia, this register may be the first of its kind in a context of reorganization of the printing press.
11. 1847 – 1873: “Opere stampate nella Tipografia”. This register is composed of two parts: on the one hand, it shows all the documents printed from January 1847 to March 1873. 607 documents had been printed over 26 years. Besides books, there are also travel tickets (biglietti di viaggio) for “il Municipio”. A mention “biglietto di Transito” appears in 1871. On the other hand, are listed the outdoor expeditions to convents. Each page is devoted to one book [mostly catechisms, mass books, or Italian grammar books, etc.]. The main recipient cities are: Jerusalem, Cairo, Damascus, Aleppo, Saida, Tripoli, Nicosia, Fajum [Fayoum] Tiberias, Caiffa [Haïffa]… Thus, the Tipografia of Jerusalem operated as the as an important production center throughout the Levant.
12. 1890 January 2 – 1909 January 11: “Stampi della tipografia”. This is the register of orders for commands or manufacturing of special characters. In one column, there appears the drawing of the new engraved character. This register is particularly interesting because it allows us to date the production or purchase of letter cases in different alphabets (Russian, Arabic, etc.). By leafing through the register, we learn which characters (and languages) were mainly produced at each period.

Picture 11. 1847 – 1873: “Opere stampate nella Tipografia” (Archivi della Custodia)
Picture 11. 1847 – 1873: “Opere stampate nella Tipografia” (Archivi della Custodia)
Picture 12. Aprile 1918 - Luglio 1919: “Registro dei lavori pel governo” (Archivi della Custodia)
Picture 12. Aprile 1918 – Luglio 1919: “Registro dei lavori pel governo” (Archivi della Custodia)

Conclusion
This first mission to the family libraries and printing presses in Jerusalem consisted in  laying the groundwork for case studies that could be conducted in the coming years. Basically, the goal of this fieldwork would be to better understand how knowledge was shared and/or divided and how texts were circulated (or not) in networks through Jerusalem 1840-1940. Of course there are a lot of other places to include in the future dashboard of this fieldwork (Hebraic, Armenian, Greek, Russian, German, British Printing Press; old Hebraic libraries in West Jerusalem). It should be noted here that this mission not only helped to locate existing archives but also, through chance encounters with people, relationships and spontaneity of the search, gave birth to archives.
With regards to future studies that could better seize on modalities for constituting public knowledge in Jerusalem during the period in question, two types of questions could be considered, focusing on family libraries or on the printing presses. For example, a case study of Khalidi or Budeiri library could focus on how knowledge materializes in a particular architectural feature or furniture, in a group of books or specific objects. Indeed, the architectural and physical environment of the library could be placed at the heart of the investigation in order to study its essential role in the representation or self-representation of scholarly activity or of a certain idea of knowledge itself. Libraries give to see a certain idea of knowledge, specialist or generalist, local or universal, and how they materialize a representation of culture within its limits and in its ambitions.
An investigation on Printing Press and printers could inform the history of scholarly work that is actually determined by the development of techniques and instruments. Sites that attract considerable attention — for authors, readers, and technicians — printing presses are also diffusion locations, where knowledge is reticulated or radiated. At the crossroads of flow, they are devoted to the establishment of texts themselves and their reproduction. Thus, the study of printing would open the way to a dynamic approach to knowledge: in terms of spheres of influence, centrifugal and centripetal forces, but also in terms of circulation and translation. In this way, one would better understand the central nodes of a network in relation to the others, located in more distant peripheries. A huge challenge, to be continued!

  1. Christian Jacob, « Introduction: Faire corps, faire lieu », Lieux de savoir, Tome 1, Paris, Albin Michel, 2007. []
  2. Al-Ju’aba Nazmi, Walid Khalidi, Catalog of Manuscripts in Al-Khalidi Library – Jerusalem, Vol. 1 & 2, London: Al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation, 2001-2006. The website of the Khalidi Library: http://www.khalidilibrary.org/indexe.html. []
  3. Ruhi al-Khalidi (1864–1913) was a writer, teacher, activist and politician in the Ottoman Empire at the turn of the twentieth century. He was the nephew of Youssef Ziya al-Khalidi, who was one of the first mayor of Jerusalem. In 1908, Ruhi was one of three delegates elected to represent Jerusalem in the new parliament and become Vice-President of parliament (1911).
    []
  4. http://www.khalidilibrary.org/englishbookse.html []

Open Jerusalem Panel at MESA 2015

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MESA 2015, Denver (US), Panel n° 4125, Sunday November 22nd, 8:30-10:30:
“Open Jerusalem! Towards a New Entangled History of Citadinité (1840-1940): Concepts, Methods and Archives”
Organized by Vincent Lemire
Supported by ERC Funded Project OPEN JERUSALEM

Chairman : Salim Tamari (Institute of Jerusalem Studies)
Discussant: Jens Hanssen (Univ Toronto)
Vincent Lemire (Univ Paris-Est / Dir. ERC Open-Jerusalem Project) : “Managing the Open Jerusalem Project : A Transnational, Collaborative and Democratic Attempt”
Michelle U. Campos (Univ Florida) : “Mapping People and Places in Late Ottoman Jerusalem through GIS”
Leyla Dakhli (Centre Marc Bloch – CNRS) : “From Mutual Understandings to Multiple Translations: Languages of Jerusalem at the Turn of the 20th Century”
Anouk Cohen (CNRS) : “Shared Uses of Religious Schools, Libraries and Printing Press in the Holy City”

Work in Progress: Ethiopian Archives in Jerusalem

by Stéphane Ancel, Open Jerusalem

Picture 1-Example of files from Ethiopian Archives

The presence of Ethiopians Orthodox in Jerusalem is attested at least from the 13th century. But during the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, the Ethiopian Orthodox community knew a great revival: the number of Ethiopians increased, buildings dedicated to them were bought or erected. Among others, historians like Littmann, Cerulli, Pétridis, Meinardus, Makonnen Zäwde or Pedersen have proposed valuable studies about the Ethiopian community in Jerusalem, especially Kirsten Pedersen who for the first time proposed a very clear and precise history of this community during the 19th and 20th century. But if the outline of the history of the community is known, there is a great lack concerning its involvement in Jerusalem city life during that period. Besides, the characteristics of the archives of the community are basically not known: only few documents had been accessible to historians and even Kirsten Pedersen, herself member of this community had a restricted access to these documents.

It is clear that during this period the community should have produced many documents. In fact, the main idea leading Open Jerusalem research is that the archives of the community should provide documents which permit to understand the involvement of the community in the daily life of Jerusalem at that period and its relationship with the local municipality and the other communities established in the town.

After a meeting with OJ director Vincent Lemire and me, the Ethiopian Orthodox community in Jerusalem was enthusiastic about the project and his Holiness abunä Matthias, Patriarch of Ethiopian Orthodox Church in Addis Ababa, and his Grace abunä Enbakom, Archbishop of Ethiopian Orthodox Church in Holy Land, gave us the access to the archives of the community in Jerusalem.
The study of these archives has just started. For the moment, documents found in the archives are administrative and financial documents, such as payment receipts, cheques, bank documents, financial reports, letters and correspondences concerning daily problems of the community, registers, etc. As a whole, these documents permit to open a window to the daily life of the community, and to understand all the problems and opportunities for a religious community established abroad, concerning installation, supplies, access to public services, administration or worship.
Here are some examples among the documents collected:

– Receipts and payment document are witness of Ethiopian involvement in local network:

Document in French, Ethiopians using middle men from Jerusalem for searching houses to rent, here Pascal Seraphin in 1913.
Document in French, Ethiopians using middle men from Jerusalem for searching houses to rent, here Pascal Seraphin in 1913.
Picture 3-Payment document for Russian Community 1914
Payment made by Ethiopian community to Russian community in 1914 for using a machine (“pompe à eau”).

– Receipts and payment documents to the municipality:

Payment dated to 1934 for cleaning the cesspit of Ethiopian building.
Payment dated to 1934 for cleaning the cesspit of Ethiopian building.

We can observe that Ethiopians had different interlocutors, according to the needs and opportunities. Interesting enough, each interlocutor supposed the use of a specific language, for example with the British municipality in English, with Russian community in French, local merchants in different languages.
Worship activities posed also problem and documents bring to light the role of the municipality to solve the problems and at first the problem of the usage of the Holy Sepulcher.

Also some documents bring to light ownership problems of the community. The problem of the Dar Es Sultan monastery is much known: Ethiopians during that period claimed the ownership over this monastery located at the roof of St. Helena chapel, in the Holy Sepulcher. This claim was contested by Coptic community (and it is still today the case). This case is known especially thanks to the work of Cerulli, Pétridis and Pedersen, and some documents concerning this case were published by abunä Philippos, first Ethiopian bishop of Jerusalem.
No spectacular documents concerning especially this case came out from our investigation in Jerusalem for the moment. But a very interesting book could be identified.

Picture 5-Wäldä Mädhen dairy 1891
A manuscript, in paper, written in 1883 E.C. (1890-1891 AD) by an Ethiopian monk called Wäldä Mädhen could be found. In his manuscript, Wäldä Mädhen describes the daily life of Ethiopians in Dar Es-Sultan at that time, their difficulties and their relations with other communities. Makonnen Zäwde could describe it shortly at the beginning of 1970s but Kirsten Pedersen could not have access to this book. Analysis and study of that book is in progress, in addition with the study of the known text called “History of Der Sultan”,
Picture 6-History of Der Sultan
An Amharic text dated to the beginning of the 20th century and preserved in a large manuscript in paper (Ms. JE692E) containing also the Kebrä Nägäst.

Maybe less known, documents present the case where Ethiopian community was the owner of houses rented to institutions or individuals. These documents are crucial to understand how the community built and managed its properties in the Holy Land.

Administrating worship place in Jerusalem have supposed a great flexibility, in using a specific language with specific interlocutors, in establishing relations with different middle men involved in local social network, in using specific network of merchants for supplies, and in establishing itself in Jerusalem scene. Thanks to full collaboration of Ethiopian Orthodox authorities, the ongoing study of Ethiopian Orthodox Church in Jerusalem will open a great window on daily life of the Ethiopian Orthodox community in Jerusalem between 1840 and 1940.

June 25 – 26, 2015, International Conference: Archiving a City. The Future of Jerusalem Past

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READ THE FULL PROGRAM

June 25, 2015
Archives Nationales

18:00 Keynote Speech by Dr Önder Bayır
Director of the Ottoman Archives, Istanbul

«The Ottoman Imperial Archives:
A Key Place for the Study of Jerusalem History»

19:00 Cocktail

11 rue des Quatre Fils 75003 – Salle d’Albâtre


June 26, 2015
Opening Jerusalem’s Archives and Digital Histories
Interconnecting Methods, Tools and Practices

Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée
Laboratoire ACP – EA 3350
Bâtiment Bois de l’étang – Salle 6
Cité Descartes (RER A / Noisy-Champs)

9:30 Vincent Lemire (UPEM): Open Jerusalem Project: A Transnational, Bottom-Up and Collaborative Experience

10:00 Elisa Grandi (Université Paris VII): Digital History. Concepts, Methods and Historiographical Debates

10:30 Pierre Yves Saunier (Université Laval): Writing Open Jerusalem: The www Option

11:00 coffee break

11:15 Francesca Morselli (Cendari): CENDARI. Methodologies of the Collaborative European Archival Infrastructure for the Study of WW1 and Medieval Culture

11:45 Maria Chiara Rioli (Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa): Open Jerusalem: A Project of Digital Public History?

12:15 – 13: discussion

13:00 – 14:30 lunch break

14:30 Andrea Violante (NiEW): User Experience Design and User Centered Design Methodologies to Drive a Digital Project Within and Beyond the Margins of the Screen

14:45 Stéphane Ancel (Open Jerusalem) / Yann Potin (Archives Nationales): Imperial Ottoman Archives and Open Jerusalem Project: How to Deal with 19600 documents?

15:00 Angelos Dalachanis (Princeton University): Zotero in Jerusalem: Creating an Open Bibliographic Database

15:15 Luca Martinelli (Wikimedia Italy): Information in the Digital Commons: How to Make Knowledge Really Open

15:45 Chiara Scesa (NiEW): Pervasive Information Architecture for Historical Ecosystems. Designing Cross-Channel User Experiences to Move from the Digital to the Physical Environment and Back

16:15 Michele Mauri (Politecnico, Milan): Data Visualization for Digital Collections

16:45 Dario Ingiusto (Mapping the World): Mapping Jerusalem’s Archives and Open Jerusalem Project

17:15 discussion

 

CFEE Seminar: Ethiopia in Open Jerusalem

Photo 6 Consulate 1

Centre français des études éthiopiennes (CFEE) Monthly Seminar

on Medieval and Post-Medieval History of Ethiopia,

2nd year (2014-2015)

7ème séance / 7th session : Ethiopia in Open Jerusalem ERC-Project: Transnational Issues of Ongoing Researches and Inquiries, par / by Vincent Lemire (UPEM-ACP/Open Jerusalem Project Director) & Dr. Stéphane Ancel (IMAF/Open Jerusalem Project Member)

Mercredi 13 mai 2015, 14h-17h, Bibliothèque d’études éthiopiennes Berhanou Abebe (CFEE) / Wednesday 13th May 2015, 2-5 PM, Berhanou Abebe Library of Ethiopian Studies (CFEE).

Ethiopia in Open Jerusalem ERC-Project: Transnational Issues of Ongoing Researches and Inquiries

Even if the tie between Jerusalem and Ethiopia is ancient, the Ethiopian community is usually not included in historical works concerning Jerusalem. “Open Jerusalem” project and its members are, on the contrary persuaded of the absolute need to include Ethiopia and Ethiopians in Jerusalem history. The Open Jerusalem project (full title: “Opening Jerusalem Archives: for a shared and connected history of citadinité in the Holy City-1840-1940”) aims at studying the urban society of Jerusalem from 1840 to 1940. Supported and funded by the European Union (EU), through the European Council of Research (ERC), this project focuses on local administrative archives and on all demographic segments of the Holy City’s population from 1840 to 1940. Presented by Dr. Vincent Lemire, director of the project and specialist of Jerusalem contemporary history, and by Dr. Stéphane Ancel, specialist of Ethiopian contemporary history, this paper aims at discussing the main issues of the project, specially the transnational issues about researches and inquiries of documents concerning Ethiopian community in Jerusalem.

Photo: Monastery of Däbrä Gännät Kidanä Mehrät, Jerusalem (S. Ancel)

Open Jerusalem participe au colloque « Ouvrir les archives »

Ouvrir les archives : enjeux, débats, conflits

Archives Nationales (site de Pierrefitte-sur-Seine) : 13-14 avril 2015

Organisateurs : Stéphane Péquignot (EPHE), Yann Potin (Archives Nationales)

Ouverture par Gérard Naud, directeur du Centre des Archives contemporaines de Fontainebleau, des camions scellés des fonds restitués par Moscou en 1994 (Archives nationales, versement 19990229, © Archives nationales, France)
Ouverture par Gérard Naud, directeur du Centre des Archives contemporaines de Fontainebleau, des camions scellés des fonds restitués par Moscou en 1994 (Archives nationales, versement 19990229, © Archives nationales, France)

Programme

Inscrites dans le programme « conflits d’archives en Méditerranée (2012-2015) » (Casa de Velázquez, Ecole française d’Athènes, Ecole pratique des Hautes Etudes), ces deux journées d’études sont l’occasion d’une réflexion collective et comparatiste sur les ouvertures d’archives. Dans une perspective de longue durée réunissant archivistes, juristes et historiens spécialistes de la France, de la péninsule Ibérique et de Jérusalem, les conflits liés aux ouvertures d’archives seront d’abord envisagés comme une affaire de droit(s). Et ce depuis les conditions concrètes des ouvertures d’archives où surgissent des conflits, jusqu’aux acteurs impliqués et aux motivations liées à la valeur symbolique, politique, voire fondatrice prêtée aux archives. Il s’agit de comprendre dans quelle mesure les luttes menées en vue de leur plus grande accessibilité laissent des traces dans le fonctionnement et le rôle ultérieur des archives. Certaines ouvertures s’avèrent problématiques, inachevées, ou peuvent être remises en cause, en raison notamment de changements politiques. Tout en signifiant métaphoriquement une forme de libération par l’accès à ce qui était auparavant tenu au secret, « l’ouverture des archives » peut ainsi, de fait, constituer un compromis précaire entre des protagonistes aux intérêts divergents. En ouvrant les archives, met-on véritablement un terme définitif aux conflits qu’elles suscitent ? Accueillie dans le nouveau site des Archives nationales, à Pierrefitte-sur-Seine, deux ans après son ouverture au public en janvier 2013, la rencontre se terminera par une table ronde et un débat qui se proposent d’élargir la question de l’ouverture à toutes les formes contemporaines de communicabilité et de médiation de la matière « archives ».

Lundi 13 avril

9h. Accueil par Françoise Banat-Berger, directrice des Archives nationales

Ouverture : Stéphane Michonneau (Casa de Velázquez, Madrid)

Introduction : Stéphane Péquignot (EPHE, SAPRAT, Paris)

Matin

présidence : Stéphane Péquignot (EPHE, SAPRAT, Paris)

9h30 Véronique Lamazou-Duplan (université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour) : Ouverture sous contrôle. Les archives de Foix au début du XVe siècle

Pause

10h 45 Marie Ranquet (SIAF) : La communicabilité des archives publiques en France, genèse d’un Graal archivistique (1794-2008)

11h45 Maria de Lurdes Rosa (Universidade Nova de Lisbonne) Ouvrir le chartrier, donner accès au patrimoine archivistique familial: les sens des ouvertures des archives de famille noble dans la longue durée (Portugal, XVe-XXIe siècles)

Après- midi

présidence Yann Potin (Archives nationales, DECAS)

14h15 Jean-Pierre Bat (Archives nationales, DEL) : La guerre d’Algérie : historiographie ouverte, archives fermées ?

Atelier du programme ERC « Open Jerusalem Archives ».

Vincent Lemire (université Paris-Est Marne la Vallée), Ouvrir les archives d’une ville fermée ?

Stéphane Ancel (IMAF, ERC Open Jerusalem), Accessibilité des archives éthiopiennes d’Ethiopie et d’ailleurs : organisation, dispersion et destruction

Leyla Dakhli (CNRS, Centre Marc Bloch, Berlin), Dire, taire, traduire, les langues des archives de Jérusalem

Jonas Sibony (BULAC), Entrouvrir les archives des communautés séfarades de Jérusalem 1850-1950

Mardi 14 avril

Matin 

– présidence : Stéphane Michonneau (Casa de Velazquez)

9h Olivier Poncet (Ecole nationale des chartes) : Au-delà de la preuve. La dramatisation des archives comme discours politique, social et savant (France, XVIe-XVIIe siècles)

pause

10h15 Maria José Turrión García (Archivo General de la Guerra Civil Española) Historia del Archivo General de la Guerra Civil Española

11h15 Bruno Ricard (SIAF), Open data, droit des archives et protection des données personnelles

Après-midi :

– présidence : Ghislain Brunel (Archives nationales)

14h15-15h15 Christian Hottin (Direction générale des Patrimoines) : Montrer pour mieux cacher ? variations sur l’architecture des lieux d’archives, entre transparence et opacité (XIXe – XXe siècle)

15h15-16h15 . visite du nouveau bâtiment des Archives nationales

16h15-18h : table ronde : Ouvrir les archives, clore les conflits ?

– Ghislain Brunel (Archives nationales, directeur des publics)

– Noé Wagener (CNRS, ISP)

– Sophie Coeuré (université Paris VII, Paris)

– Philippe Artières (CNRS, LAHIC)

– Gilles Morin (CHS, université Paris I / AUSPAN)

– Anette Wieviorka (université Paris I, IRICE)

Contact et renseignements : yann.potin@culture.gouv.fr

First Steps: Ethiopian Archives in Jerusalem (S. Ancel)

by Stéphane Ancel

Between the 8th and the 18th of February 2015, Open Jerusalem team member Stéphane Ancel visited members of the Ethiopian Orthodox community in Jerusalem. His initiative aimed at establishing contact between the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church and the Open Jerusalem Project and at evaluating possibilities for studying Ethiopian Orthodox documents in Jerusalem.

Historical sources attest the very early presence of Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church in Jerusalem. However the Ethiopian Orthodox community has known a great revival during the 19th and 20th century. Several sites in the town bear witness to Ethiopian Orthodox activities:

– the famous monastery Dar as-Sultan, located on the roof of Helena’s chapel, and its two associated chapels dedicated to Michael and to the Four Living Creatures, which are served by Ethiopian monks.

Photo 1 Dar AsSultan

– the so-called Archbishop’s residence: located in the Old City (Ethiopian Monastery Street, near the 8th Station of the Via Dolorosa), this house was given to the Ethiopians in 1876 but used as such only from 1891. It accommodates today the Ethiopian Orthodox Church administration and a chapel dedicated to St. Phillip.

Photo 2 Residence 1Photo 3 Residence 2

– The monastery of Däbrä Gännät Kidanä Mehrät, located in West Jerusalem, Ethiopia Street, was commissioned by King of Kings Yohannes IV (1872-1889) but was finished in 1896 by Menilek II (1889-1913).

Photo 4 Debre Gannat 1Photo 5 Debre Gannat 2

– A large building in Hanivim Street, commissioned by Empress Zäwditu in 1928 was used for Ethiopian consulate administration and also for accommodating Ethiopians who worked and settled in Jerusalem.

Photo 6 Consulate 1Photo 7 Consulate 2

– Some buildings are not  occupied by Ethiopians anymore but still bear witness to the important Ethiopian Orthodox activities during the 20th century. A house commissioned by Queen Taytu (wife of Menilek II) in 1903, located at the crossroad of Heleni Mamalka and Shivtei Israel streets is now occupied by the Israel Broadcasting Authority. Some other houses built or bought by Ethiopians at the beginning of the 20th century and formally given to the Ethiopian monastic community, are still visible in the Ethiopian compound, even if they are nowadays occupied  by other institutions.

Stéphane Ancel visited these sites, met elders of the community and obtained information concerning the community, its organization and its history. He was also warmly received by His Grace Abune Enbaqom, Ethiopian archbishop in the Holy Land, and other officials of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church in Jerusalem to whom he presented the aims and issues of Open Jerusalem Project. His Grace Archbishop Abune Enbaqom and all members of the Ethiopian Orthodox community have welcomed the Open Jerusalem project initiative. However, they legitimately asked the project to officially demand the authorization to the Patriarchate of Addis Ababa to analyze the documents preserved in the archives of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church in the Holy Land. For that purpose, Vincent Lemire, director of the project and Julien Loiseau, director of the French Research Centre in Jerusalem, officially contacted the headquarter of Ethiopian Orthodox Patriarchate in Addis Abeba. This is the beginning of the process… to be followed….

From Istanbul to Jerusalem

After the archival training session at the French National Archives held in Paris in December 2014, Open Jerusalem moved to Istanbul for a two-day session (21-22 January 2015) of archival work at the Başbakanlık Osmanlı Arşivi (BOA) and a workshop at the French Institute for Anatolian Studies (IFEA).

is1

The Imperial archives in Istanbul are one of the main archives where to reconstruct Jerusalem history  in the late Ottoman period because of the direct dependence of Jerusalem to the Sublime Porte, the richness of sources collected at the BOA and the high level efficiency in archival management. Therefore, the BOA play a central role in the framework of Open Jerusalem project. Yasemin Avci, associate professor at Pamukkale University and member of OJ team, is specifically charged with working through the tens of thousands of files, trying to retrace the various aspects of Jerusalem citadinité.

This work has been made possible by the full support and daily help of the direction and staff of the BOA. Professor Önder Bayır, director of Ottoman Archives, and Professor Mustafa Budak, vice-general director of Turkish State Archives, warmly welcomed the Open Jerusalem team and showed their endorsement to the project.

is2

The Open Jerusalem Team visited the Restoration service of the BOA where Mrs  Şükriye Ersin introduced the topic of the protective techniques for the conservation of historic documents.

The Director of the BOA Reading Room, Mr Fuat Recep  described to the researchers the preservation procedures used in the BOA for the documents and the ongoing activity of training courses for the BOA staff.

is3

On January 22nd, the French Institute for Anatolian Studies opened its doors to host a joint IFEA – Open Jerusalem round-table workshop about “Re-Opening Ottoman Archives. New Perspectives for Jerusalem’s Modern History”.

ifea

The morning presentations by Vincent Lemire, Yasemin Avci, Yann Potin and Stéphane Ancel  were all devoted to the discussion of the possible ways in which archivists and historians can catalogue and analyse the monumental amount of sources available in the BOA about Jerusalem’s history.

  • Yasemin Avci: «Documents about Jerusalem ‘Citadinité’ in the BOA: first description of the masses and possible working methods»
  • Yann Potin: «The BOA / Open-Jerusalem database: how to deal with such an amount     of documents?» FULL TEXT
  • Stéphane Ancel: «Data base and open Jerusalem Project: methodological aspect»

is4

In the afternoon, Professor Richard Wittmann illustrated Istanbul Memories, a project carried out by the Orient-Institut Istanbul and academic cooperation partners. In his presentation he showed the largely still unexplored richness of autobiographies, diaries and other first-person narratives, in order to draw a multi-language, non-sectarian history of the city. The following presentations by Falestin Naili, Leyla Dakhli and Abdul-Hameed Al Kayyali showed how these elements are at the very core of Open Jerusalem project and can open new paths of collaborations and historical research.

  • Richard Wittmann: «The Istanbul Memories: An interdisciplinary and international research project of the Orient-Institut Istanbul»
  • Falestin Naili: «The Minutes of Jerusalem Municipality (1892-1916): a forgotten source revealing the history of Jerusalem» FULL POWERPOINT
  • Leyla Dakhli: «Imperial multilingualism and national translations? The wording of Jerusalem Citadinité»
  • Abdul-Hameed Al Kayyali: «The Hebrew newspaper Ha-Zvi: a mirror of Jerusalem’s public affairs at the turn of the century» FULL POWERPOINT

 

New Publication about Jerusalem’s Ottoman Municipal Archives (Y. Avci, V. Lemire, F. Naili)

The new issue of Jerusalem Quarterly is now available online. It includes an article by Yasemin Avci, Vincent Lemire and Falestin Naili (Open Jerusalem) about “Publishing Jerusalem’s Ottoman Municipal Archives (1892–1917): A Turning Point for the City’s Historiography”.

minutes

Read the html version | Read the pdf version

 

ROUND-TABLE WORKSHOP: RE-OPENING OTTOMAN ARCHIVES

 testata

RE-OPENING OTTOMAN ARCHIVES:

NEW PERSPECTIVES

FOR JERUSALEM’S MODERN HISTORY

Thursday 22 January 2015

IFEA, Institut Français d’Etudes Anatoliennes 

Istanbul

 

  • 9h: welcome
  • 9h30: Vincent Lemire (Université Paris-Est/ Marne-La-Vallée, Open Jerusalem Director): Opening remarks

  • 10h: Yasemin Avci (Pamukkale University): «Documents about Jerusalem ‘Citadinité’ in the BOA: first description of the masses and possible working methods»

  • 10h30: coffee break

  • 11h: Yann Potin (Archives Nationales, Paris): «The BOA / Open-Jerusalem database: how to deal with such an amount of documents?» FULL TEXT

  • 11h30: Stéphane Ancel (Open Jerusalem Team) : «Data base and open Jerusalem Project: methodological aspect»

  • 12h-13h: Discussion

  • 13h-14h30: Lunch Break

  • 14h30: Richard Wittmann (Orient-Institut, Istanbul): «The Istanbul Memories: An interdisciplinary and international research project of the Orient-Institut Istanbul»

  • 15h: Falestin Naili (IFPO, Amman): «The Minutes of Jerusalem Municipality (1892-1916): a forgotten source revealing the history of Jerusalem» FULL TEXT

  • 15h30: coffee break

  • 16h: Leyla  Dakhli  (CNRS, Centre Marc Bloch, Berlin): «Imperial multilingualism and national translations? The wording of Jerusalem Citadinité»

  • 16h30: Abdul-Hameed Al Kayyali (IFPO, Amman): «The Hebrew newspaper Ha-Zvi: a mirror of Jerusalem’s public affairs at the turn of the century» FULL TEXT

  • 17h-18h : discussion

Seminar Announcement, 15 January 2015

judeo-arabic

PROGRAM

Jeudi  15  janvier  2015  
Centre de recherche français à Jérusalem
à  14h

Séminaire  ERC  Open Jerusalem

« Les  langues  juives  parlées  /  écrites  /  archivées

 à  Jérusalem »

סמינר ירושלים הפתוח

במרכז המחקר הצרפתי בירושלים

השפות העבריות המדוברות, הכתובות והנמצאות בארכיון

בירושלים

  • 14h :  Vincent  Lemire  (Université  Paris‐Est, Open Jerusalem Director)  :  «  Histoire  connectée  et  enjeux  linguistiques : quelle(s)  Lingua  Franca  pour  le  projet  Open  Jerusalem  ?
  • 14h30 :  Marie‐Christine  Bornes­‐Varol  (INALCO‐CERMOM,  Paris)  :  «  Multilinguisme  et contacts  de  langues  :  une  langue parmi  plusieurs  autres  et  plusieurs  langues  dans  une seule  » FULL TEXT
  • 15h : Gaëlle  Collin  (Musée  d’art  et  d’histoire  du  judaïsme,  Paris)  :  «  Les  judéo‐espagnol(s) d’Orient  :  djidyo,  djudyo,  djudezmo  sefardi  ou  ladino,  plusieurs  noms  et  plusieurs graphies pour  une  même  langue  » FULL TEXT
  • 15h30 : Jonas  Sibony  (INALCO‐CERMOM,  Paris)  :  «  Le  judéo-arabe,  judéo‐langue  ou  parler arabe  ?  » FULL TEXT
  • 16h : discussion

 

Centre de recherche français à Jérusalem

3, rue Shimshon, Baka, Jérusalem
B.P. 547, 91004 Jérusalem

Téléphone : +972 (0)2 565 81 11 
Télécopie : +972 (0)2 673 53 25
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